The evaluation of the learning that has taken place against a set of achievement criteria. Assessment can take different forms, such as formative “ongoing” feedback and summative exams or coursework.
Formative assessment is aimed primarily at determining the strengths and weaknesses of a student’s work, with the objective of improvement. Formative assessment demands feedback to the student in some form and may, but will not always, contribute to summative assessment.
Summative assessment is aimed at evaluating student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark.
Peer assessment/review is an assessment/review of students’ work carried out by other students.
Self-assessment is an evaluation of one’s own abilities.